For decades, SARS is circulating-CoV-2 in bats
The supposedly new Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, according to a recent study, in fact, been around for decades. On the basis of genetic analysis by an international Team of Chinese, European and US-American Researchers could prove that the Virus has existed for 40 to 70 years.
In the case of the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of SARS-CoV-2, the Virus that is for the COVID-19 pandemic was responsible, it was clear that the Virus for decades, reported the research team led by Maciej F. Boni from the Pennsylvania State University. Was published the study in the journal “Nature Microbiology”.
Bats and Pangolins suspected
The emergence of the Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 there are different theories, particularly bats, and Pangoline (Pangolins) as a possible Vector will be discussed. If the viruses are directly transferred from bats of the genus Horseshoe bats on humans or whether initially a mutations in the Pangolinen was required, is one of the open questions should be clarified with the current study.
The origins of SARS-CoV-2 on the track
In principle, the genetic Material of the “corona virus is a recombinant highly, which means that different regions of the virus may be derived genome from different sources,” explains Professor Maciej bonuses. Therefore, it was difficult to reconstruct the origins of SARS-CoV-2, and it had to identify all regions that have recombined, and evolution history can be traced, the expert continues.
In extensive genetic studies, the researchers were able to the evolutionary relationships between SARS-CoV-2 and its closest relatives, bat and pangolin virus to reconstruct it. However, although SARS-CoV-2 to the bat Coronavirus RaTG13, which was demonstrated in 2013 in a Rhinolophus affinis horseshoe bats in the Yunnan province (China), is genetically very similar (about 96 percent Compliance), was the spin-off, according to the researchers already relatively long time ago.
The emergence over 50 years ago
The calculations of the research team according to the SARS has CoV-2 as early as 1969 by the RaTG13-line cleaved. The lineage of the viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, was created in front of about 40 to 70 years. In addition, SARS have in common-CoV-2 with older relatives of the virus, the Receptor binding domain (RBD) on the so-called Spike Protein. By the RBD, the Coronavirus is able to recognize the receptors on the surface of human cells and to bind to you.
Other bat viruses dangerous to humans
This means that other corona viruses which are circulating in bats that can infect people, says Professor David L. Robertson, from the MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research. In addition, in the studies, significantly that the virus can directly skip from bats to humans, without Pangoline as an intermediate host. There was no evolutionary changes in the Virus in Pangolinen.
No Mutation in Pangolinen required
Not least, the “RBD sequence of SARS-CoV-2 was found, so far, only a few of the Pangolin-virus”, according to Prof. Robertson. While it is possible that Pangoline could have as an intermediate host, knitted, has facilitated the Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to the people, but there is no evidence to suggest that a Pangolin-infection is a prerequisite for Transmission to humans. In fact, it is expected that SARS-CoV-2 has developed the ability to multiply in the upper respiratory tract of humans and Pangolinen.
Future pandemics to prevent
The research team comes to the conclusion that in order to prevent future pandemics took urgently a better sample in wild bats, as well as the introduction of monitoring systems for human infectious diseases are also needed. The monitoring system should be able to identify übergesprun genes pathogens on the best in real-time.
Know what viruses you are seeking
“The key to successful Monitoring is to know which viruses you have to look for, and prioritize those that can easily infect people, according to Prof. Robertson. “We have to be late in responding to the first outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, but this will not be our last Coronavirus pandemic,” adds Prof. bonuses. (fp)