How can dust mites trigger Asthma?
It’s a new way has been identified, as certain allergies can arise. Lead researchers deciphered the molecular mechanism of house dust mite allergies and Asthma. This could also open up new approaches to the treatment and prevention of allergies.
In the case of a current investigation with the participation of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the sequence of molecular events has been identified, the so-called house dust mites, Asthma and allergic Rhinitis trigger. The results were published in the English scientific journal “Nature Immunology”.
A failure results in the identification of Asthma?
Asthma is often triggered by house dust mites, tree and grass pollen. Researchers assume, that the excessive presence of immune response, when the immune system is otherwise harmless allergens are mistaken for Bacteria or other infectious agents. The molecular mechanisms of this incorrect underlying identification, have not been understood sufficiently.
What SAA1 is?
In the current study, SAA1 has been studied, an immune protein, which is found in the liquid to the respiratory tract and other mucosal tissue surfaces. SAA1 belongs to the evolutionary innate immune system of mammals.
Interaction between mite molecules and SAA1
Allergenic molecules from house dust mites can interact with an immune protein called SAA1 inter. The current investigation shows step-by-step, how this interaction between the mite molecules and SAA1 in mice, triggering an immune response from the allergic type.
The researchers found that the exposure of mites to dust-proteins, an Asthma-like sensitization of the respiratory tract induced in mice of the control group. In contrast, the exposure had mites to dust-proteins in mice, in which SAA1 antibody-neutralized, or in the case of mice, their genes were turned off for SAA1, little impact.
Immune reactions, allergic type stimulates
Further studies confirmed that SAA1, if it is present, certain dust mites-binds to allergens directly, which as a fatty acid-binding proteins, and structural Similarities with proteins, which occur in some bacteria and parasites. These Allergen-SAA1-interaction-free sets SAA1 in its active Form, in which it activates a Receptor called FPR2 on the cells lining the respiratory tract.
The airway cells produce and secrete large quantities of Interleukin-33, a Protein, which is known for its ability to stimulate immune reactions, allergic type.
How to activate all of the genes Interleukin-33?
The research group assumes that different allergens take different paths to activation of Interleukin-33 and the associated allergic reactions. The SAA1-FPR2-way seems to be a path that is trodden by some house dust mite allergens.
How relevant are the results to people?
The researchers see in the results, a relevance for humans and found, according to their own information in an increased production of SAA1 and FPR2 in nasal cells from people with chronic Sinusitis. This Form of Sinusitis is often mites with dust-allergens-in connection.
New treatment strategy for Asthma in the view?
The results of the study show a possible way, on the allergic and inflammatory diseases may arise. They also suggest that blocking this pathway could possibly act as a prevention or treatment strategy for Asthma and other allergic reactions, stress the researchers. The research group assumes that the signal interactions, the proteins occur immediately after the activation of SAA1 by the mites, could be good points of attack for future medicines.
The signal path also for other diseases and allergies relevant?
The newly described allergic SAA1-FPR2 pathway might not be the only Asthma and hay fever, but also in atopic Dermatitis (eczema) and food allergies, and possibly even in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid Arthritis and atherosclerosis, add the researchers. (as)